Friday, May 25, 2012


© Farouk Asvat  

     In the last thirty years the Arab people have experienced a period of acute change; it has been a society in the throes of a revolution.  And Egyptian fiction, in reflecting the varied emotions of such a period, gives an indication of a people under the strains of sudden social, political and cultural change, following centuries of established custom and order.  Arab writers, like writers throughout the supposed Third World’, have had to transcend these traditions, and depart from techniques that have been the accepted norm for centuries; they have had to provide a vision of their own, to find a way through a labyrinth of contradictory cultural influences, so that they could speak to the Arabs of today - torn between East and West, socialism and capitalism, European values and Islamic values - about new things in a new way.  

     It is not easy to transcend the traditions of a language that had been the accepted custom for centuries to establish a new norm consonant with the modern world.  The struggle for a better life in the Third World’ has to be more arduous and continuous, better equipped to protect itself and ensure its growth, and more scientifically planned - without losing its essential humanity - to achieve success and ultimate victory.  The engaged writer is thus face to face with himself: he is either sincere or not; she is either original or not, he is either a poet or not.  Therefore to read modern literature- the geniuses among them - is to feel the pulse of the modern world.  


     Arabs in the modern world are eagerly groping for a place under the sun, anxiously trying to discover a national identity amidst contradictory ideologies.  In their spiritual malaise they are torn between Arab values and Western values, between exploitation and socialism, between populism and nationalism.  

     And nobody has succeeded better than poets in reflecting the varied emotions of such a period.  The contemporary Arab poets have confronted the shattering experiences of wars, coups d'états and civil strife.  The revolutionary poets have cast off the outworn conventions of the classical tradition, and have rebelled against the clichés (verbal and emotional) that have dogged Arabic writing.  

     Their poetry portrays a picture of a people under the stress of sudden social, political and intellectual change; and the poets have had to provide a vision of their own, find their way through a maze of foreign cultural influences in order to speak to the Arabs of today about new things in a new way.  

     The Second World War, the Arab-Israeli conflicts, the invasion of Lebanon by Zionist forces all contributed to the upheaval.  But it was the Palestinian wars, more than anything else, that laid bare the inefficiency of traditional Arab social structures that has been existing by sheer inertia, - its inadequacy in the face of modern technology and organization made abundantly clear.  All that was hopeful and honest in the Arab world was crying out for change; and all that was mean and evil tried to suppress this cry.  And change did not come easily, nor was it accepted without resistance; and more than once the Arabs found themselves divided among themselves.  The socialist revolution that some of them had adopted was shown to be insufficient; they realized that it had to be more radical and extensive; that their struggle for a better life, like that of others in the ‘Third World’, had to be more arduous and continuous, better equipped to protect itself and ensure its growth, and more scientifically planned to achieve success and ultimate victory.  

     Incessantly pressing was their need for a genuine entry into modernity, an authentic freedom from the crippling shackles of traditional modes of thought, and a real grip on the power of science and technology to enhance the quality of Arab life.  

     It was not easy for the poets to transcend the traditions of a language and poetic technique that had been the accepted norm for fifteen centuries, in order to establish a new norm consonant with their new vision.  They suffered from excruciating agonies of the soul, as they honestly tried to formulate a vision that would be authentically theirs, in the maze of foreign cultural influences.  Their poetic sensibilities were put to a hard test, and only a few were able to resolve the tensions creatively and meaningfully.  

     Since the 1940's, Arab poetry has been dominated by four major developments: the Taf'ila Movement (1947-1957), the Majallat Shi'r Movement (1957-1967), the June 1967 Experience (1967-1982) and the Beirut Experience (1982 onwards).  

     The Taf'ila Movement started in 1947 with the publication by Nazik al-Mala'ika and Badr Shakir al-Sayyab of two experimental poems, whose compositions represented an act of defiance against established poetic values.  Others followed, creating more flexible forms that freed poetry from the sentimental indulgence of the earlier escapist poetry.  The association of some of these poets with the Iraqi Communist Party helped to sharpen their awareness of the social problems of the country, leading to persecution and exile, which in turn strengthened their resolve.  Al-Sayyab's Rain Song exemplified this period, describing the abuses of power in Iraq.  

     The Majallat Shi'r Movement originated with Yusuf al-Khal's magazine Shi'r.  Using historical and mythological themes to interpret contemporary situations, reflecting political and social realities and projecting a vision of the future, they attempted to create their own idiom.  They also evaluated their classical poetic heritage, linking it with the positive elements of other cultures.  Most of the Shi'r poets were Christian, thus broadening the scope of Arab poetry and insight into other cultures.  The Shi'r poets have been responsible for radically changing people's views on classical and modern poetry, and their ability to fuse classical techniques with Symbolist, Modernist, Futurist, Imagist, Dada and Surrealist theories on poetry was one of their main achievements, and represented a historic literary advance.  

     Israel's sweeping victory over the Arabs in the Huzairan (June 1967) War stunned the Arab world.  Nizar Qabbani's poem, Footnotes To The Book Of The Setback, captured the mood of a nation shattered by defeat, and was banned throughout the Arab world after its initial publication.  But it was smuggled into every Arab country, printed surreptitiously, and learnt by heart; and released a flood of political frustration and anger that found expression in what became known as 'The June Literature'.  And the 'Resistance Poets,' Mahmoud Darwish, Samih al-Qasim and Rashid Hussein (the latter living in Israel), regarded poetry as the only way of asserting their Arab identity within an alien culture.  

     In June 1982 Israel invaded Lebanon, and the destruction of Beirut had a devastating effect on Arab culture.  The street, the desert, and the sea became recurring themes in the poetry of Beirut under siege.  A note of desperation pervades these poems, exposing Palestinian vulnerability, taking the Palestinian leaders to task for selling false hopes to their people, showing the lack of ideological direction in the Palestinian leadership.  As Darwish cried out:  

     We have a country of words.  Speak, speak so we may know the end of this travel.

     Modern Arab poetry thus has a tragic character consonant with its environment, stemming from a tragic conception of life, from an understanding of being as a continuous conflict in which people are eternally making choices, eternally carrying a burden, eternally making sacrifices, sincerely preoccupied with an understanding of life.  Not interested in a description of it from the outside, the poets are bent on experiencing it within themselves.  

     The modern Arab poet thus has to confront not only his society, but also himself; - and paying the price in spiritual anguish, he has been ready to be a martyr.  

     But the strength of the modern Arab poet lies in the fact that he writes about the misery and tragedy of individuals who suffer the effects of politicians obsessed with the old illusions of grandeur.  The politician proclaims nationalism while promoting sectional and personal interests.  The poet proclaims the individual and promotes dignity.  One broadcasts propaganda, the other writes the truth.  It naturally follows that Arab poetry is a high-risk business.  

     And this restless search for personal and social happiness and salvation is at the root of the new Arabic poetry.  It is tragic inasmuch as the existential riddle of life finds no final solution in it.  A mystical dedication to truth, a resilience in struggle, a readiness for crucifixion and a hope in resurrection continue to be its main themes.  To read it is to feel the pulse of the modern Arab world.  

     These themes are excellently explored in Modern Arab Poets, translated and edited by Issa J Boullata; Modern Poetry Of The Arab World, translated and edited by Abdullah al-Udhari; Selected Poems by Adonis; and The Music Of Human Flesh by Mahmoud Darwish.  


     "It is the Egyptians who have given form and structure to story-telling as an Arab literary art."  
     • P J Vatikiotis (The Times Literary Supplement). 

     The short story is the most popular form of written Arabic literature (as opposed to song and oral poetry); it is most developed in Egypt, and it is the Egyptians who have consistently exhibited a special talent among Arabic speakers for fiction.  

     "They have managed, particularly in the past twenty years, to develop the short story, novel and drama to a fairly high artistic standard, despite the suspicion by the religious establishment that fiction is corrupt because it deals with love and man's desires and weaknesses, fears and torments, all of them areas of life that are inappropriate for public revelation …; not to mention antagonism to if for being of infidel-foreign-provenance …" (Vatikiotis).  

     The best writer in this genre is surely Yusuf Idris, whose poignant short stories are collected as The Cheapest Nights.  Another collection of stories in this series is Sonallah Ibrahim's The Smell Of It

     Naguib Mahfouz is the best-known and most successful Arabic novelist.  He has published about twenty volumes of novels and short stories.  The only English translations at present are of as Midaq Alley (Zuqāq al Midaq), a vivid description of a vibrant alley in the back streets of Cairo, serving as a microcosm for the country; which also has the best reasons for going on the hajj; and Miramar, which relates the interaction of the residents of a small hotel in Alexandria (which also serves as a microcosm for Egypt) - from the intricate perspective of each of the residents in turn.  

     A writer newly available in the same series is Fathy Ghanem with The Man Who Lost His Shadow.  

     The only collection of Arabic plays in the series is Tewfik Al-Hakim's Fate Of A Cockroach and other plays of freedom.  

     A valuable introduction to Egyptian poetry is provided in Modern Arab Poets, edited by I Boullata, and Salah 'Abd al-Sabur's poignant and intensely passionate poems.  

     Non-Egyptian writers in this series include the Sudanese Tayeb Salih's Season of Migration To The North (a novel) and The Wedding of Zein (a collection of short stories); Tawfiq Yusuf Awad's Death In Beirut; and the Palestinian, Mahmoud Darwish's Selected Poems

     selected and translated by Denys Johnson-Davies 

     This is an excellent introduction to modern Egyptian writing, comprising stories by 17 authors, including Yusuf Idris, the best in the genre, and whose collection of selected stories is available in English as The Cheapest Nights.  Furthermore, Johnson-Davies' translations are of such high quality that they give English readers the impression the stories were originally written in English.  

     Edward El-Kharrat's Within the Walls is the best and most powerful and evocative story in the collection.  It is the tale of Haniyya, a young widow who challenges the môres of her village, with tragic consequences.  The language is beautifully imaginative and gently handled, just as the story itself is carefully developed to its climax.  

     Although El-Kharrat has produced only two volumes of short stories, he is a major influence on the modern literary movement in Egypt.  

     Lutfi Al-Khouli's The Man Who Saw The Sole Of His Left Foot In A Cracked Mirror, is a surrealistic story unfolding on the thought-experiences of a Cairo man whose more or less wife had been unfaithful to him, and whose twin-brother does not return from an ill-fated trip into the desert.  

     Al-Khouli, who observes that "the eye does not see everything in things," has been in and out of prison 12 times because of his political activities.  He has published two volumes of short stories, and political works including Conversations with Bertrand Russell and Jean-Paul Sartre.  

     Nabil Gorgy's Yusuf Murad Morcos is a lovely little piece, tongue-in-cheek, about Yusuf's life, love, career and marriage – it is a tragedy handled as comedy in the most underhand manner.  

     The Conjurer Made Off With The Dish by Naguib Mahfouz, Egypt's best-known novelist, examines fate as it affects a young boy sent to buy beans.  

     Yusuf Idris' House of Flesh is the story of a blind Qur'an reciter who assumes further blindness to absolve his responsibilities; and his relationship with the widow he marries, and her three ugly daughters.  This story is not included in The Cheapest Nights, but is a good example of Idris' concern with the struggling poor.  

     Mohamed El-Bisatie's Conversations From The Third Floor is between the wife standing outside the prison yard and her imprisoned husband.  

     Suleiman Fayyad's The Accusation is a pitiful, but unfortunately long-winded story.  

     A Place Under The Dome by Abdul Rahman Fahmy is the sad story of the eccentric, indefatigable Sheikh Sabir. 

     In Yusuf Shaouni's The Crush of Life, the obese bus conductor Fathi Abdoul Rasoul, born in the countryside, develops a phobia for overcrowding - it deals with the tragic effects his obesity and ocholophobia have on him. 

     The final story, by Gamal Atia Ibrahim, The Child and the King, tells of an infant's upbringing during the reign of a King, and during the Revolution, and the effects his father's attitudes have on him in later life.  

     An interesting aspect of this collection worth considering is that most of these writers were politically active or imprisoned, and yet, contrasting it to South African writing, their writing is not political per se, but socially engagé nevertheless. 

     Though a few of the stories are mediocre, the collection is a very good exposition of Egyptian writing today, covering a wide field of talent; and explains why the short story is the most popular form of Arabic fictional literature.  

     by Fathy Ghanem

     Fathy Ghanem was born in Egypt in 1924 and became editor of Sabah Al-Khair.  His first novel satirised a well-meant attempt to resettle peasants; but the Cairo press forms the background of much of his later writing.  

     The story of The Man Who Lost His Shadow is so deceptively simple, the reading so rapid, one gets so subtly involved with the main characters, one feels part of their lives - as if first Mabruka, then Samia, then Muhammad Nagi, and then Yusif himself, are confiding their selves to us.  

     The story revolves around Yusif Hamid, the young and ambitious son of a teacher, as he enters into the jungle of Cairo journalism.  We see him through the minds of Mabruka (a young peasant girl come to Cairo to work for the aristocratic Rateb Bey, and then works for Yusuf's father whom she marries); Samia (the beautiful girl having ambitions of becoming a famous actress, who ends up loving Yusif); Muhammad Nagi (the foremost Cairo editor eventually dethroned by Yusif); and then we see via himself Yusif's rise to power, and his control over so many lives - except perhaps his own and that of a girl he desires.  

     There is much interweaving of the characters' lives, but the pivotal dilemma is that of Yusif, as he himself reflects: "How was it I grew up, acquired knowledge, fame and fortune, yet lost myself."

     Francis King has called Ghanem's style "A sober and lucid realism worthy of Maupassant."  Kingsley Amis, talking on BBC radio, remarked: "...what I admire is the sheer literary skill with which the material is shaped and handled ..."  

     The cover design (for this edition) by Ahmed Mustapha is imaginative, and the novel itself is fast reading, with rapid plot and character development, moving from scene to scene without the laborious mental conflicts and scene descriptions characteristic of so much Western literature.  But the tale is not one of cozy irony - it is filled with those moments of truth that are obvious yet seldom mentioned but immediately recognised; statements that explain life for one fleeting instant to be made ambiguous by the actions of the protagonists themselves.  

     by Yusuf Idris

     "Yusuf Idris … is the renovator and genius of the short story."  
          Tewfik al Hakim  

     Yusuf Idris' contact with the working class and the struggling poor enables him to portray such vivid and unforgettable characters as the perplexed peasant Abdul Kerim, the red-haired temptress Li-Li, the impotent policeman Ramadan, the hard-up Abdou, and the long-suffering El Shabrawi.  

     Yusuf Idris is one of the leading figures in modern Egyptian literature, and the best in the genre of the short story.  This collection of 15 of his finest pieces reveals his love and deep attachment to the rural surroundings, and his compassion, understanding and ultimate faith in humanity.  But his stories are also powerful and immediate reflections of his own rebellious life.  

     Idris' stories are devoid of a central plot, and the simplicity of his themes gives vigour to his writing: he simply introduces us into a very real world making us share the experiences of his perfectly sketched characters.  He captures their outward behaviour through a few masterly strokes, revealing their emotions and reactions without resorting to psychological analysis.  We see this against their destiny and against the human condition - but Idris does not pass judgement on any of his characters, although a moral is implicit in the narrative.  

     Yusuf Idris' most vivid character is the fellah (or peasant) in his daily confrontation with the higher strata of society, and the growing bureaucracy; and his day-to-day struggles to feed himself and his ever­enlarging family, so that one type of character remains dominant: the frustrated, ambitious, idealistic young, but poor man, unable to fulfill his vision due to the harsh environment and the rigours of life.  

     In The Cheapest Nights itself, Abdul Kerim, devoid of entertainment for lack of money, returns each night to his poverty-ridden home and to his wife "with her brood of six" to indulge in the only pastime he can afford.  It is an excellent, descriptive story seen through Kerim's mind, a man whose perplexity is greater than he can deal with - so that his fatalistic cynicism, his vituperation, is all that he possesses.  

     In You Are Everything To Me, Ramadan, the ageing policeman, loses his virility, and torn between despair and humiliation, he pursues every means to regain it, but finally resigns himself to a transferred comfort.  

     In The Errand, El Shabrawi volunteers to take an insane woman by train to Cairo, the city he hankers to return to - but the bureaucracy of Cairo and the mentally disturbed woman have an unexpected effect on El Shabrawi.  

     In Hard Up, Abdou is broke, as always.  He moves from job to job between periods of unemployment, until he discovers an ingenious method to earn his money, but even that doesn't last.  The story strongly puts the point that a man must even sell his blood just to stay alive.  

     The Queue deals with the thwarted attempts of a landowner to deprive the poor of their marketplace, and the determination and ingenuity of the poor in always finding a way to make a living.  

     In The Funeral Ceremony, Abou'l Metwalli has no time for civilities - driving a bargain, performing the mere formalities, to get the rituals over with - even in the presence of death.  It shows with stark simplicity the dire struggles for daily bread.  

     All On A Summer's Night is a pathetic story of the effects a city-wise braggart's stories have on a group of pubertal peasant boys.  The narrative is well-developed to its climax, and the secret dreams of the young farm-workers are revealed with remarkable sensitivity.  

     In The Caller In The Night, Saleh believes everything the medical student tells him, so that his unforgivable ignorance and blind faith have tragic consequence.  

     In The Dregs Of The City, Judge Abdallah, a bachelor, uses his obsequious servant Farghali to hire a young female servant.  The story gives a very good descriptive contrast between the rich and the poor areas of Cairo.  

     Did You Have To Turn On The Lights Li-Li, is the most delightful, and in the end, rather sad story of Imam Abdel Al, who comes to lead a drugged community onto the right path, only to do battle with the devil incarnate, the half-Egyptian, half-English, red-haired temptress Li-Li, who only gives herself to foreigners.  It would be rather cruel to reveal the ending, which is absolutely delicious. 

     Death From Old Age:  Intimation s on life and death in a philosophical, descriptive narrative - those nearest death making a living from the death of others.  

     Bringing In The Bride deals with the strange custom of bringing in the bride, but it is also perhaps a comment on how generosity can be taken advantage of.  

     The Shame is set on a farm, where "private affairs need not remain private."  The story demonstrates Yusuf Idris' shrewd understanding of the fellahin mind.  

     Because The Day Of Judgement Never Comes is the story of Ibrahim's premature discovery of life, and himself, in an overcrowded room.  Leading to the ultimate realization of the truth of his own origins, it is about the painful loss of innocence.  

     The Freak is an allegorical tale of the fear people have of their innermost truths and of their clandestine activities being discovered.  

●     Yusuf Idris was born in 1927 in an Egyptian village, and his family moved a great deal from one town in the Delta to another before finally settling in Cairo.  

     He studied medicine, but his years as a student were increasingly interrupted by the turbulent political situation in Egypt: he took part in demonstrations against the British and the corrupt system of King Farouk; and he was responsible for radical publications which led to his suspension from college, and to his imprisonment.  After graduation he worked at a government hospital, but his revolutionary vocation continued.  He joined underground organisations fighting the British, and he supported Nasser's rise to power, but soon became disillusioned, when he realised that the revolution had accomplished few of its glowing promises.  Idris was arrested and incarcerated; and during his detention he joined the Communist Party, only to resign when he realised he could never accept the totalitarian side of communism.  

     Idris practiced medicine for a time, travelled extensively in the Arab world, and became a government health inspector.  Butin 1960, having decided to devote himself entirely to writing, he gave up medicine, and became editor of a Cairo newspaper.  

     In 1961 he joined the freedom fighters in the Algerian mountains, and remained there for six months fighting the French, until he was wounded.  He was later decorated for valour by the Algerian government.  

     Yusuf Idris' literary career began when he was a medical student.  His short stories began to appear in a prominent Cairo newspaper and a leading weekly magazine.  In 1954 his first collection of stories was published as Arkhas Layali (The Cheapest Nights).  In 1959 Qua'a Al Madina (The Dregs Of The City) appeared; followed by Hadi'that Sharaf (The Shame) in 1960.  Akher al Dunya (Ends Of The Earth) appeared in 1961, followed by Lughat ul Ay Ay (The Language Of Pain) in 1967.  In 1970 Beit Men Lahm (House of Flesh) appeared.  

     The Cheapest Nights is the first time his works have been published in English, and includes, at the author's request, stories from each of the above six collections in order to represent work from every stage of his development as a writer.  

     Yusuf Idris is best known as a short story writer, but he is also an established journalist, has published novels, and is a playwright of great originality: his plays are mostly comedies with political overtones written in colloquial language.  

     Idris is essentially a socialist writer and brings to his stories a unique ability to exploit both the classical and colloquial languages to his literary purposes.  Idris' style is unique: he makes a deliberate distinction between the language spoken by his characters and that which he assumes when he himself takes over the narrative.  This subtle alternation of spoken and classical Arabic enhances the realism of his stories, and expresses his own individuality as a writer.  (Unfortunately the distinction is lost in the English translation).  This innovation raised an outcry among Arab critics initially, but they eventually capitulated, when it became evident that the Arab reader was for the first time savouring a purely indigenous product - a stark expression of himself.  

     Idris' short stories have been singled out for particular praise, and much of his work has been translated into Russian and other European languages.  And this book has been accepted in the Contemporary Arab Authors Series as part of the Translations Collections of UNESCO.  

     Taha Hussein, the eminent Egyptian writer and scholar hailed Yusuf as a young writer of outstanding talent.  Tewfik al Hakim, the most famous Arab playwright, called Yusuf Idris "the renovator and genius of the short story."  Michael Petrie­Ritchie commented: "As a social document, The Cheapest Nights is absorbing; as a series of character studies it is both vivid and moving."  

     Yusuf Idris is no stranger to censorship and persecution for his humanitarian attitude to the plight of Egypt's poor.  And success and recognition have not diverted him from political issues.  His play, The Schemers, was banned for being highly critical of Nasser's policies; and as literary editor of Cairo's highly influential newspaper Al Ahram he was sacked once under King Farouk, four times under Nasser, and once under Sadat so far.  

     From the beginning of his literary career, Idris has been concerned to portray life as he saw it, with all its anxieties and blemishes.  As a writer he sees himself as the "social lungs for the people to breathe through."  He says that a writer differs from other people in that he is more impressionable, with a keener sensitivity to his surroundings, and has a part to play in society.  And his views remain the same today as they did more than two decades ago: that there must be change, an improvement in the lot of the majority of the people.  

     Yusuf Idris reiterates his conviction that life is a constant process of change with which views and values must keep up.  Nothing must remain static.  Where there is standstill there is no life.  People are not born to accept the situations imposed upon them by previous generations.  He is therefore always alert to new concepts and to new philosophies.  He says that "in a constantly changing world, a writer is a major factor in revolution."  

© farouk asvat

composed: 1980 [Cape Town, South Africa under apartheid]

[] Acknowledgements:

Modern Arab Writers was previously serialized as:

     "Modern Egyptian Literature":
          (Muslim News, Cape Town, p9, 17.10.1980);
     "Egyptian Short Stories":
          (Muslim News, Cape Town, p16, 31.10.1980);
     "The Man Who Lost His Shadow" by Fathy Ghanem:
          (Muslim News, Cape Town, p8, 14.11.1980);
     "The Cheapest Nights" by Yusuf Idris:
          (Muslim News, Cape Town, p8, 28.11.1980).
     "A Clash Of Cultures" [Modern Arab Literature]:
          (Sowetan, Argus, Jhb, p14, 29.07.1987);
     "Reflections On Political, Social Realities" [Modern Arab Poetry]:
          (Sowetan, Argus, Jhb, p11, 05.08.1987);
     "Within The Walls" [Egyptian Short Stories]:
          (Sowetan, Argus, Jhb, p13, 12.08.1987);
     "Genius Of The Short Story" [Yusuf Idris]:
          (Sowetan, Argus, Jhb, p10, 19.08.1987);
     "Moulded By Upheaval" [Yusuf Idris]:
          (Sowetan, Argus, Jhb, p17, 26.08.1987).
     Weapons of Words (kindle, 2016);
     Weapons of Words (amazon paperback, p50, 2016).

the NOVEL Sadness In The House Of Love by Farouk Asvat
is now available on amazon: paperback @ $15 & kindle @ only $5

the NOVEL The Gathering Of The Storm by Farouk Asvat
is now available on amazon: paperback @ $10 & kindle @ only $5

the anthology I Dream In Long Sentences by Farouk Asvat
is now available on amazon: paperback @ $10 & kindle @ only $5

the anthology The Wind Still Sings Sad Songs by Farouk Asvat
is now available on amazon: paperback @ $10 & kindle @ only $5

the anthology A Celebration Of Flames by Farouk Asvat
is now available on amazon: paperback @ $10 & kindle @ only $5

the anthology The Time Of Our Lives by Farouk Asvat
is now available on amazon: paperback @ $10 & kindle @ only $5

the anthology Bra Frooks … by Farouk Asvat
is now available on amazon: paperback @ $7.50 & kindle @ only $5

the collection of literary essays Weapons of Words by Farouk Asvat
is now available on amazon: paperback @ $10 & kindle @ only $5

© farouk asvat.  All rights reserved.

Farouk Asvat asserts his moral right to be identified as the author of this work.
No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means whatsoever, or transmitted in any form or any means whatsoever, mechanical or electronic, including recording, printing, photocopying, or via any computerised means or media, including the internet.  This publication shall also not be stored in a retrieval system.  And the writing shall not be sold, lent, hired, resold or circulated in any form or binding or cover other than that in which it is published,
without the prior permission of the author in writing.
Permission to publish or reproduce the writings in any format can be obtained from the author.
Reproduction of this work without permission, except for scholarly & nonprofit purposes,
is liable to a payment of 10, 000 ren men bi or US$ 1,500.

farouk asvat can be contacted at:

[] please check out my blogs @:

books by farouk asvat:

[] also link up on:

amazon kindle author @



#love #literature #fiction #novels #poetry #books #classics #short stories
#faroukasvat #weapons of words #comparative literature #literary criticism
#modern arab literature #arab literature #middle east #egypt
#yusuf idris #naguib mahfouz #fathy ghanem